The most important issue in thermal management of electronics devices is to design cooling systems to maintain the device junction temperaturebelow a set limit maximum junction temperature.
It has been proven that every 10ºC reduction in junction temperature will double the life expectancy of the device. In addition the performance of the device will increase with the reduction of the junction temperature.
The most common and economical way for cooling devices has been air cooling using heat sinks. The concept of using a heat sink is to transfer heat from the component level to a space where more air to dissipate the heat.
Some of the parameters that are used to determine the selection of heat sink are amount of heat to be dissipated, maximum allowable junction temperature, thermal resistance of the device and natural or forced convention cooling and if it's needed to have forced air flow in the system.
Electronics today are growing exponentially smarter and more powerful as they become smaller and more prevalent leading to increased power demands and a greater need for better thermal management. Dissipating increased heat is often the biggest barrier to optimized functionality and product success. To maintain performance and safety, extend device lifetimes, ensure customer satisfaction, and improve reliability, this additional heat must be removed.
There are numerous ways to manufacturing heat sink.
The most common ways of manufacturing of air-cooling heat sinks are:
fiber Laser Welding
A desirable cooling solution for modern electronics is a lightweight heat sink with low thermal resistance at low air velocities. Because the noise from moving the air through electronics enclosures is an issue, the low thermal resistance at low air velocities is an attractive feature.
Hence, two parameters are key when considering a heat sink:
high fin count and management of air flow movement through the fin field.
The majority of heat sinks are made from extruded aluminum. The process is useful for most applications. Extruded heat sinks come at a low cost and custom specifications can be easily manufactured. The performance of extruded heat sinks can range from low to high. Their main downside, though, is that dimensions are limited by the maximum width of extrusion.
These are normally used for applications that require large-sized heat sinks. One benefit of these is that the base material and fin material can be different. Also, a combination of aluminum and copper fins can be used instead of just one fin material. This allows you to improve thermal performance while adding a minimal amount of weight. Bonded-fin heat sinks generally offer moderate performance and come at a high cost.
Heat sinks produced through this method are normally made from copper. They are produced from a solid block of metal. These heat sinks offer high design flexibility and you can achieve high fin-density. This creates more surface area and opportunity for heat dissipation. They offer high to very high performance, but their drawbacks are generally little higher weight and directional sensitivity.
In this process, metal fins are stamped and then soldered onto the base. These are generally used for low-power applications. The advantage of stamped heat sinks is their very low cost due to ease of production automation. However, the biggest drawback is low performance.
Forged heat sinks are made by compressing aluminum or copper and have many applications. Heat sinks can be cold forged or hot forged. These offer medium performance and can be made at low cost for high volumes. However, they offer limited design capabilities.
· CNC Machined Heat Sinks
These offer high thermal conductivity, and you can achieve the most complex geometries with this process. This means you have plenty of flexibility in your design. But, they come at a high cost and the production time for each piece can make them less-than-ideal for high volumes.
1)Active Heat Sinks
These are generally fan type and utilize power for cooling purpose. They can also be termed as Heat sink or fans.
2)Passive Heat Sinks
These do not possess any electronic cooling components and are made of aluminum or copper finned radiators.
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